(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Children's Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "For concrete, summer and winter, use Solvay calcium chloride."

! 



CON 



RETE 



SUMMER and WINTER 






4 -^-?<: %«j 



*s« 



sonaar 

CALCIUM 
CHLORIDE 



'^> 



V 






V .1 Ri H&SOMS 

421 BULLETIN BLDG. 
PHILADELPHIA 



r 'i** 



•* Imt 



* 



Copyright 1923 by 
THE SOLVAY PROCESS COMPANY 

Syracuse, New York 



0CT 3 



0, 



'25 



For CONCRETE 




SOHMT 

CALCIUM 
CHLORIDE 



— . 



The Use of Calcium Chloride with Portland 
Cement. 

Valuable Results Thoroughly Proven. 

The Amount to Use and Cost. 

Solvay Calcium Chloride Accelerates, 
Water-proofs, Strengthens and Protects 
Concrete Against FreezingTemperatures. 

Accelerates. 

Water-proofs. 

Hardens and Densifies. 

Protects Against Freezing Temperatures. 

Directions for Using Solvay. 

Does the Brand of Portland Cement Used 
Affect Results ? 

Shipment. 

The Manufacture of Concrete Products. 



MP 



1 



Use 



S O L V A Y 



CALCIUM 



CHLORIDE 



The Use of Calcium Chloride 

with Portland Cement 

t ■ ^HERE has been within the past few 

years a constantly increasing demand on 
the part of engineers and contractors for 
a material or process which would accelerate the 
hardening of concrete; which would give it early 
strength, and at the same time not affect the 

of the concrete — the most desirable ac- 



l 




settin_ 

celerator being one which would hasten the hard 
ening and still not adversely affect the final set- 
tin^ 

Exhaustive tests have thoroughly proven 
that the material which best meets these neces- 
sary and important requirements is Solvay 
Calcium Chloride. It not only gives early 
strength and hardness to concrete, but at the 
same time densines, and water-proofs, and en- 
ables the concrete to resist freezing in winter 
temperatures. Solvay Calcium Chloride is a 
white granular chemical, extremely hygroscopic 
and dissolves almost instantly in water. No 
stirring is required after it is once mixed. 

VALUABLE RESULTS THOROUGHLY 

PROVEN 

For many years Calcium Chloride has been used 
as the active ingredient in many proprietary 
articles sold as accelerators. That valuable re- 
sults are obtained by the use of Calcium Chlo- 
ride has been thoroughly proven by exhaustive 
tests made by the Bureau of Standards, Ameri- 
can Society for Testing Materials, Portland 



THE SOLVAY PROCESS COMPANY 



Syracuse y New York 



F 



or 



CONCRETE Winter and Summer 



Cement Association, United States Engineers, 
Lewis Institute, Illinois State Highway Depart- 
ment, New York State Highway Department 
and The Solvay Process Company. 

The first published work was done some years 
ago bv the Bureau of Standards cooperating 
with the United States Engineers' office, Mem- 
phis, Tennessee. Tests were made with many 
different materials. Of these only Calcium Chlo- 
ride showed any beneficial results. In the Stand- 
ard Mortar Test, made with 3:1 Ottawa Sand, 
it was found that the addition of 2% to 4% 
Commercial Calcium Chloride (by weight of the 
mixing water) increased the tensile strength from 
155% to 230% by the end of 24 hours, and 
from 173% to 1 90% at the end of 48 hours,without 
affecting adversely the initial set of the mixture. 

During the past two years a sub-committee 
of Committee C-9 of the American Society for 
Testing Materials has conducted a cooperative 
series of tests on accelerators of the Calcium 
Chloride type. These tests, without exception, 
show a marked increase in early strength for 
cement mortar which contained 2% to 3% Cal- 
cium Chloride. 

Thousands of tests have been made by many 
different organizations, and while there are some 
variations in results due to different brands of 
cement, aggregate used, and other variable fac- 
tors, a summary of the tests show that 2% to 
4% of Calcium Chloride to 100 pounds of cement 
accelerates the hardening of the concrete to a 
marked extent. In some cases 5 or 6 pounds of 
Calcium Chloride to 100 pounds of cement gave 
as satisfactory or better results. However, it is 



THE SOLVAY PROCESS COMPANY 



Syracuse > New York 




Use SOLVAY CALCIUM CHLORIDE 



strongly recommended that not over 4 pounds of 
Calcium Chloride to 100 pounds of cement be 
used, as almost invariably tests show that 2% to 
4% Calcium Chloride gives as satisfactory or 
better results than larger quantities. 

A summary of the many tests which have 
been made shows that additions of 2% to 4% 
(by weight of cement) of Solvay Calcium 
Chloride in concrete mixtures increase the 
strength as follows: 



AGE 



1 days 
7 days 
28 days 
3 months to I year 



COMPARATIVE STRENGTH 

From 140% to 160% of the strength of un 
treated concrete or mortar. 

From 1 1 5% to 132% of the strength of un 
treated concrete or mortar. 

From 101% to 118% of the strength of un 
treated concrete or mortar. 

From 102% to 110% of the strength of un 
treated concrete or mortar. 



Under average conditions, it will be found 
that the proper quantity of Calcium Chloride 
added to the mix will produce at the end of 48 
hours, a concrete having the strength of a 7-day 
untreated concrete. 



AMOUNT TO USE AND COST 

For general concrete work, the usual practice is 
to use about 6 gallons of water to each bag of 
cement in gauging the mix. The Portland Ce- 
ment Association recommends the use of the 
minimum amount of water found necessary 
under given conditions. However, as the quan- 
tity of water may vary from 5 to 8 gallons or 
more per bag of cement, it has usually proved 
most satisfactory to use as a basis for the addi- 
tion of Calcium Chloride the quantity of cement 
going into each batch. 



THE SOLVAY PROCESS COMPANY 



Syracuse, New York 



For CONCRETE Winter and Summer 



It is recommended that 2 pounds to each bag 
of cement be used at the start. Increasing the 
quantity increases the speed of the initial hard- 
ening and gives further protection against freez- 
ing. As much as 3 or 4 pounds may be added — 
depending on results desired. 

Solvay Calcium Chloride, east of the 
Mississippi, costs 2 cents per pound or less, de- 
pending on the quantity ordered and the dis- 
tance from the source of supply. In the far west, 
the cost will be slightly higher. The quantity 
required for a given job can be easily estimated 
by figuring 2 pounds of Calcium Chloride to each 
sack of cement. It will be seen that the extra 
cost of using Solvay amounts to about 4 cents 
tor each sack of cement. This slight extra cost 
is small in comparison with the time and labor 
saved and the better concrete produced. 

SOLVAY CALCIUM CHLORIDE 
ACCELERATES, WATER-PROOFS, 
STRENGTHENS AND PROTECTS 
CONCRETE AGAINST FREEZING 

TEMPERATURES 

Solvay Calcium Chloride, being a part of the 
gauging water, thoroughly permeates the con- 
crete and acts uniformly throughout the entire 
mass. In contrast to many integral materials, 
which do not dissolve readily in the gauging 
water, Solvay is extremely soluble, dissolving 
and permeating uniformly almost instantly, thus 
resulting in a uniformly finished structure. This 
makes it almost impossible for inexperienced 
workmen to jeopardize the success of the work. 
It is only necessary to add 2 to 4 pounds of the 



THE SOLVAY PROCESS COMPANY 



Syracuse, New York 




Use 



SOLVAY CALCIUM CHLORIDE 



Calcium Chloride to the gauging water for each 
bag of cement. With proper directions to insure 
the correct amount of Calcium Chloride for each 
batch, the most inexperienced men can be relied 
upon to produce satisfactory results. 

ACCELERATES 

Tests made by the Bureau of Standards and 
The Solvay Process Company prove that Port- 
land cement gauged by the solution of Solvay 
Calcium Chloride attains greater strength in 
48 hours than a corresponding mixture with 
plain water attains in 7 days. Think what this 
means! Cutting more than half the time forms 
must be kept in place and halving the time 
traffic must be kept off a concrete road or floor. 

With Solvay, finishing is possible within a 
short time after pouring the concrete. Concrete 
placed at 8 o'clock can be finished by 1 1 o'clock. 
No overtime is required for finishing concrete 
placed late in the afternoon — thus effecting con- 
siderable saving of money for the contractor. 
Furthermore, SoLVAY-treated concrete sets at 
the bottom as fast as at the top, thus preventing 
strains and hair cracks, resulting in a better 
wearing surface. 

The early strength given to freshly placed 
concrete prevents the collapsing of cell structure 
during the drying out. It increases the crushing, 
tensile and abrasive strength. It gives concrete 
"life". 

The final set and strength of the concrete are 
in no way affected by the use of Calcium Chlo- 
ride. In fact, tests indicate the final strength is 
increased by its use. 



THE SOLVAY PROCESS COMPANY 



Syracuse) New York 



^— 






For CONCRETE Winter and Sum?ner 



WATER-PROOFS 

The integral method of water-proofing concrete 
has been found to be the best, and is highly 
favored by engineers and contractors. Solvay 
Calcium Chloride as part of the gauging water, 
thoroughly permeates the whole mass, thus is an 
integral water-proofer. The action of Solvay 
in accelerating early hardening gives strength to 
the concrete, preventing the collapse of the cell 
structure during the evaporation of the water. 
Porosity is thus reduced to a minimum and the 
concrete rendered dense and water-proof. 

Solvay has a lubricating action on the ce- 
ment, due, it is believed, to increasing the solu- 
bility of the silicates present. This causes the 
concrete or mortar to become more plastic and 
workable. Workmen like this "fatty" mix be- 
cause it means quicker work and easier trowel- 
ing conditions. As a result of this, the particles 
are all cemented together, producing a smooth 
surface, which is water-proof. 

HARDENS AND DENSIFIES 

The use of Solvay Calcium Chloride increases 
the strength and cementing qualities of cement 
and adds tensile and compression strength to the 
finished structure. The chemical action densifies 
the concrete which increases its resistance to 
dusting. Concrete or mortar gauged with Sol- 
vay Calcium Chloride will absorb only about 
half as much water as water-gauged material. 
As a result, the SoLVAY-treated concrete is more 
resistant to wear — due to lessened porosity — 
and is also resistant to acids and alkalies. 

Solvay Calcium Chloride, because it is 



THE SOLVAY PROCESS COMPANY 



Syracuse, New York 






■ ■ — 



Use 



• 



SOLVAY CALCIUM CHLORIDE 



used integrally, hardens the entire mass and not 
just the surface. 



PROTECTS AGAINST FREEZING 

TEMPERATURES 

The Portland Cement Association has pub- 
lished a bulletin, "Precautions for Concrete 
Pavement Construction in Cold Weather". The 
following is taken from this bulletin: 

"The only chemical recommended as an ad- 
dition to the mixing water is Calcium Chloride. 
This material possesses the property of lowering 
the freezing point of water and accelerating the 
setting of the concrete. It is used by being dis- 
solved in the mixing water. It is generally sold 
in crystalline form and is readily soluble in 



water. 



>> 



The Calcium Chloride solution used for 



au sf- 



ing the concrete will stand lower temperatures 
without freezing than plain water. In very cold 
weather, however, the usual precautions taken 
to protect the concrete should be adhered to. It 
is recommended that the aggregate and water 
be heated and the concrete covered or protected 
otherwise. Placing concrete subjected to high 
wind and also thin wall construction needs greater 
protection than mass construction. 

Solvay raises the temperature of the mix, 
and its accelerating action on the setting creates 
heat. 

As Solvay hardens the concrete in about half 
the usual time, the chance for freezing is natu- 
rally cut in half, and the forms and protection 
can be removed that much sooner. 



THE SOLVAY PROCESS COMPANY 



Syracuse, New York 



For CONCRETE Winter and Summer 



•m 



The following table gives the recommended 
proportions of Solvay to use for different at- 
mospheric temperatures: 



EXPECTED ATMOSPHERIC 
TEMPERATURES 

-H8 C F 

_j_20° F 

+ 15° F 



PROPORTION OF 
sOLVAY TO WATER 

1 lbs. of Solvay to 6 gallons of water 

3 lbs. of Solvay to 6 gallons of water 

4 lbs. of Solvay to 6 gallons of water 



The above table is based on using approxi- 
mately 6 gallons of water to each bag of cement. 

DIRECTIONS FOR USING SOLVAY 

Any convenient method of weighing or measur- 
ing out the Calcium Chloride is satisfactory. 
The best one to use under given conditions will 
suggest itself. It is important to remember that 
for best results not less than 2 pounds nor more 
than 4 pounds of Calcium Chloride should be 
used to each bag of cement. 

A gallon measure of Calcium Chloride will 
contain about 8 pounds. An ordinary 14-quart 
pail about three-quarters full will contain 18 to 
20 pounds of Calcium Chloride, which, when 
dissolved in the necessary amount of water to 
rill a 50-gallon barrel, will make a solution of 
approximately 2 pounds of Calcium Chloride to 
6 gallons of water. This solution can then be 
used for gauging the mix. 

Another satisfactory method is to make up a 
standard solution, using water and a measured 
quantity of the solution with each batch. The 
following method is offered as a suggestion : Take 
one pail of Solvay Calcium Chloride and 1 
pails of clear water. Pour the water into a barrel 
or other suitable container and slowlv add the 
Calcium Chloride, stirring until solution is com- 



THE SOLVAY PROCESS COMPANY 



Syracuse, New York 



Use 



SOLVAY CALCIUM CHLORIDE 



plete. This mixture will contain the following 
quantity of Calcium Chloride: 



gallon 
quarts 
quarts 

i quart 

i pint 



3 



3.2 pounds of Calcium 

2.4 

1.6 

0.8 
0.4 



<< 



it 



a 



a 



<< 



a 



<< 



a 



< c 



<< 



c< 



a 



Then mix the batch of concrete or mortar, 
just as you have been in the habit of doing, only 
for each bag of cement used, add about 3 quarts 
of standard Calcium Chloride solution together 
with the necessary water and be prepared to find 
the mixture set in about half the usual time. 



DOES THE BRAND OF PORTLAND 
CEMENT USED AFFECT RESULTS? 

Solvay Calcium Chloride may be used with 
any brand of Portland cement, although the re- 
sults obtained by the use of Calcium Chloride 
with different brands will vary to a slight extent. 

With most brands of Portland cement, the 
proper amount for general purposes is 2 pounds 
of Solvay Calcium Chloride to each bag of 
cement. Should this proportion not give the 
desired results, the amount may be slightly in- 
creased. However, it is not recommended to use 
in greater proportion than 4 pounds of Calcium 
Chloride to each baer of cement. 




in non- 



SHIPMENT 

Solvay Calcium Chloride is s 



returnable metal drums for which no additional 



charge is made. These standard drums contain 
375 pounds" each. Solvay is also shipped in 



T k HE SOLVAY PROCESS COMPANY 



Syracuse, New York 



For CONCRETE Winter and Summer 



moisture-proof burlap, paper-lined bags, con- 
taining ioo pounds each. As the drums are ab- 
solutely air-tight and afford the chemical perfect 
protection, it is recommended that Solvay be 
purchased in drums whenever possible. 

The Solvay Process Company carries stock of 
Solvay Calcium Chloride in 50 cities in the 
United States, which gives prompt service with 
minimum transportation charges. 



THE MANUFACTURE OF CONCRETE 

PRODUCTS 

Concrete products can be made easier, cheaper 
and better by using Solvay. Calcium Chloride 
will help overcome the disadvantages of cold 
weather, increase the output of your plant, and 
improve the quality of your products all the 
year round. With Solvay your products will 
show a higher polish, owing to the density and 
smoothness which it gives to them. 

Two pounds of Solvay Calcium Chloride 
cost about 4 cents, and used as directed with 
each bag of cement will: 

HALVE the time of setting. 

DOUBLE the output of a plant having limited 
floor space. 

INCREASE the early strength so blocks can 
be handled in half of the usual time. 

PREVENT a large part of the loss from breakage. 

LOWER the freezing point of the mixture so 
work can be done in cold weather without 
injury if properly handled. 



— 



THE SOLVAY PROCESS COMPANY 



Syracuse, New York 






Use SOLVAY CALCIUM CHLORIDE 



SHORTEN the time that forms are tied up. 

SAVE TIME in the steam room and often ren- 
der it unnecessary. 

ADD BUT LITTLE to the cost of the mix, 
but save tremendously in time and space, 
besides improving the quality of the prod- 
uct and increasing profits. 



READ THIS LETTER! 

New Bedford, Mass., Feb. i, 1923. 

Mr. C. M. Adams, Jr., Mgr. 
Semet-Solvay Company, 
77 Summer Street, 
Boston, Mass. 
Dear Sir: 

I am pleased to inform you that I have used your Solvay 
Calcium Chloride and will say I have found the results above all 
expectations. I have used all other known hardening and water- 
proofing compounds in the manufacturing of cast stone the past 
twenty years, and do not think any product on the market com- 
pares in any way with your Solvay Calcium Chloride. Most 
specifically re: anti-freezing, density and as a fuel saving. 

I have decided to use your product year round from now on. 

Respectfully yours, 

N. P. Dubuc, Jr., Manager, 
Modern Cast Stone Company. 



THE SOLVAY PROCESS COMPANY 



Syracuse, New York 



MORSE INTERNATIONAL AGENCY, NEW YORK 

PRINTED IN U. 8. A 



I 




[BLANK PAGE] 








INTFRNATIONAI 






CON 



RETE 



SUMMER and WINTER 



»jri 



'- Wfi M 






• ni 






sodmt 

CALCIUM 
CHLORIDE 



W -_- k 



<> 



; 









V